The Logic of Metaphor: Analogous Parts of Possible Worlds (Synthese Library)

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The Logic of Metaphor

Your message was sent successfully. You can expect a response within 2 business days which will be displayed in your Message Centre. Ask a question: 0 Answers. The Logic of Metaphors uses techniques from possible worlds semantics to provide formal truth-conditions for many grammatical classes of metaphors. It gives logically precise and practically useful syntactic and semantic rules for generating and interpreting metaphors. These rules are implemented in Last seen price R3 Log in to your account to manage your alerts.

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Eric Steinhart. These rules are implemented in a working computer program.

Analogies, Metaphors, and Similes

The book treats the lexicon as a conceptual network with semantics provided by an intensional predicate calculus. It gives rules for finding analogies in such networks. It shows how to analyse texts containing metaphors both syntactically and semantically and how to use structural similarities between parts of possible worlds to provide truth-conditions for metaphors. Meanings for metaphors are linked to the modal logics of identity and indiscernibility. The book shows how to extend deductive and adductive inference systems so as to handle metaphors and how to handle novel metaphorical word-senses.

Indispensable reading for philosophers, logicians, linguists and computer scientists.

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The processing time is set by the merchant and can be 1,3,5,7 and newly added 14 or 21 days. For a product displaying a "View Offer" button clicking the button will direct you to the product on the associated shop's online store. Yes, delivery can be arranged as shops offer various delivery methods. All of our shops use the South African Post Office or reputable couriers to deliver goods. After tracing the origins of truth-conditional! In other words, the premise says that a contextual element has a role in the fixation of the truth-conditions of an utterance if and only if it is part of the proposition expressed by the utterance.

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The full significance of this premise will emerge in Chapter 7, when I shall provide an alternative to this view, more in line with the kind of semantics I favoured, which is relativistic in spirit. I conclude Chapter 4 with a discussion of relevance theory, the theory originally proposed by Dan Sperber and Deirdre Wilson [] , which has been further developed by Carston Leaving the issue of meaning aside for a section, I concentrate on the account of communication offered by these authors, which radically departs from the assumptions characterising the Gricean pragmatics.

The main assumptions of this theory are that language understanding is not governed by norms, as Grice and other philosophers thought, but only moved by considerations of relevance. In other words, communication is possible only because humans are geared to the maximisation of relevance, that is, to the maximisation of stimuli worth being processed. In the last part of the chapter I therefore reflect upon the consequences of adopting the relevance theoretic account of communication, especially in relation to the topic of metaphor.

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As far as metaphor is concerned, relevance theorists propose a! In the case of metaphor, the explicature of an expression used metaphorically is an ad hoc concept, a concept created by the speaker on the spot, by broadening or narrowing some of the conditions associated to its lexical entry. In Chapter 5 I offer a battery of counter-examples and arguments against truth- conditional pragmatics, showing that it is not a tenable doctrine. No constraint whatsoever is offered by truth-conditional pragmatics. Given all these unwelcome features, I conclude that we must look for a theory of metaphor that deals with these issues better.

Fri Apr 27 2001

With this conclusion in mind, I approach the final part of my dissertation. In chapter 6 I consider a first semantic account of metaphorical interpretation due to the philosopher Josef Stern. The function of this operator is to attach to a literal vehicle! However, although Stern respects my initial desiderata of a theory of metaphor it respects compositionality, it is empirically adequate at least for the cases it covers, and it accounts for the essential context-dependence of metaphor , it does so by relying on doubtful syntactic operations inherent in his operator and, also, by overcharging the expressive power of the language.

Furthermore, I will show that in order to save his system by troublesome objections, such as the difficulty his system has to treat cases of nominative metaphor e. In Chapter 7 I am going to put forward a new proposal concerning metaphorical interpretation: the idea that the metaphorical dimension of an utterance is neither inherent in the meaning of an expression or sentence, nor inherent in the content expressed by one of its utterances, as all the accounts I have considered in this work have thought.

To be sure, the metaphorical dimension is something that arises in context. However, against the contextualist and indexicalist proposals I have examined, my view is that the role of context does not affect the content expressed by a metaphorical utterance, but determines the appropriate circumstance of evaluation at which the expression used metaphorically get assigned its proper extension. In the first part of the chapter I present four cases that have received an explanation in harmony with my proposal.

In the second part of the chapter, I extend some of the ideas of these philosophers to metaphorical interpretation. With that scope in mind, I investigate some puzzling cases involving operators that shift the dimension of evaluation, belief reports of metaphors and denials of metaphors.

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  • My claim is that my theory gives a clear account of these constructions, where other proposals have failed, or not even tried, to provide one. As for any new attempt to explain a phenomenon that has already received a good deal of attention, there will probably be issues my account will not touch, for which other theories have made specific proposals.